The individuals involved in these matters are based at:
- KTH (Sweden),
- Stanford (California, USA),
- University of California (California, USA),
- Johns Hopkins University (Maryland, USA),
- Penn State (Pennsylvania, USA),
- University of Washington (Washington, USA),
- The National Institutes of Health,
- The National Science Foundation.
and the publishers are
- SAGE Publications,
- Springer-Verlag, and
- IEEE (New Jersey, USA).
The matters have been litigated in federal courts in California and New Jersey and the Circuit court in Maryland.